Traditional Medicine Trade: Tigers The magnificent Tiger, largest of all cat species, may be driven to extinction because its body parts are in such demand in the Traditional Medicine trade that it is pursued and killed even in sanctuaries and national parks. The illegal trade in Tigers grew astronomically in the 1980s concurrent with the burgeoning of economies in many countries in Southeast Asia, and it continues at uncontrolled levels. These endangered animals are no longer safe, even in the remotest parts of their range. Fewer than 5,000-- and many believe that as few as 3,000--remain (Matthiessen 1997). Most experts say they will not survive in the wild more than a few decades at the present rate of killing, which is calculated at one Tiger a day for this market (Jackson et al. 1996).
This species has lived on Earth for at least a million years, and until the 20th century, its range covered most of Asia. During the Pleistocene Age, when sea levels were low, Tigers colonized Indonesian islands and Japan, spreading into almost every habitat except deserts (Matthiessen 1997). Thousands of years ago, warriors in Central Asia and China killed Tigers in shows of manhood, which are depicted in works of art. Even in 1900, an estimated 100,000 Tigers roamed from eastern Turkey to Russia's Far East, and south to Bali in Indonesia. Since the turn of the century, an estimated 95,000 Tigers have been killed. These great cats have played an important role in the mythology, art, culture and even religion of cultures throughout Asia. Their courage, even when cornered and trapped, has contributed to the almost mythic role in which Tigers have been cast. This is a major reason many practitioners of TM believe that Tiger body parts will impart virility and restore health to those consuming them.
Traditional Medicine practitioners use nearly every part of Tigers, from their whiskers to their eyes, claws, pelts, flesh and bones. Their bones are ground into a powder that is used to manufacture "Tiger Bone Wine," of supposed medicinal value, and elixirs from ground Tiger bones are used to treat rheumatism, convulsions, scabies, boils, dysentery, ulcers, typhoid and malaria (Ward and Ward 1993). There are medicinal substitutes to treat all these maladies. The male's penis is made into soup, said to give potency, for rich Asian businessmen who pay as much as $18,000 for a dinner featuring it (Highley and Highley 1994). The trade continues because of the ingrained and widespread beliefs by the Chinese and many other Asians in traditional potions. The Chinese government encouraged the trade by sponsoring Tiger-bone medicine production until mid-1993 (Schaller 1993), and evidence indicates that the trade continues today without interference from Chinese authorities.
Tiger medicine products are marketed in China, Southeast Asia, and in Chinese pharmacies throughout the world. All of this trade is illegal under most national laws and CITES, but enforcement in Southeast Asia is weak. Because the Tiger bone is sold in powder form, it can be traded surreptitiously, even in countries with strict wildlife laws.
Not only are Tigers being killed in great numbers, but they are dying cruelly. Poisoned meat is spread in national parks in India that kills slowly and painfully. Pesticides, such as the toxic Aldrin, are placed in buffalo or cow carcasses already killed by a Tiger, to poison the Tiger when it returns to feed; sometimes water pools are laced with poison (Currey 1996). Steel jaw leghold traps and wire snares, which maim and slice through the flesh, are set in forests throughout its range. In Russia, they are trapped or pursued by howling packs of dogs. Tigers have been filmed as they were being killed by a knife inserted into the throat while strung up spread-eagled, all four legs stretched apart by tight ropes. Females have been shot and their cubs left to starve to death. Dealers in poached Tigers now employ villagers to kill Tigers for a fee, supplying the villagers with poison and traps. In the 1970s, bold Tigers lolled in national parks for tourist cameras, but today they have either disappeared or become frightened, nocturnal hunters.
Should the Tiger disappear, a remarkable animal will have been lost. The male Siberian, largest subspecies of Tiger, can reach 6 feet in length, with a tail another 3 feet long, and weigh more than 670 pounds, while females weigh about 360 pounds and are smaller in stature (Nowak 1999). The Lion, second largest cat, weighs--at most--550 pounds, well under the weight of the Siberian male (Nowak 1991). Its immense strength enables it to carry large deer for long distances and up into high trees. Tigers are able to leap vertically 10 or more feet while carrying a deer. Tiger mothers are extremely devoted to their cubs, which number up to four per litter. Cubs remain with the mother for almost two years, requiring a long apprenticeship to learn to hunt and survive in the wild. In some cases, cubs do not become independent until they are 3 years old (Nowak 1999). About half the cubs die in their first two years, but adult Tigers have a low natural mortality, with a potential longevity of 26 years (Nowak 1999).
The 20th century was witness to a drastic reduction in the numbers and ranges of the Tiger. It was eliminated in vast areas with the growth of human populations and the spread of cities, and when guns came into common use, its long tenure as the supreme predator was over. Wilderness areas that provided refuge in Central Asia and Russia became the domain of livestock, and prey species were hunted out by local people. In the absence of natural prey, Tigers killed domestic livestock, becoming the object of unregulated slaughter. Added to this, they were a great prize for trophy hunters, and killing for Traditional Medicine in Southeast Asia caused them to disappear from vast areas. Gone from Java, Bali, East Asia and most of its remaining range in Asia, it is probably extinct in south China and close to extinction in Sumatra (Matthiessen 1997). The Indonesian government admitted at an October 1995 Asia Regional Meeting of CITES that poaching of the Sumatran Tiger was "uncontrolled" and "overwhelming" (Jackson et al. 1996).
Education programs have been launched to discourage the use of Tiger products within China, attempting to kindle conservation zeal among the Chinese people. Jackie Chan, the star of many action films, volunteered to do Public Service Announcements discouraging the use of Tiger products. But the resistance is strong. A Traditional Medicine practitioner commented angrily to CNN news in July 1996 that laws against the use of Tiger products were thwarting his practice. American conservationists in the southern province of Yunnan found Tiger bone pills being sold in markets in 1996, in spite of legal prohibitions (Naiman 1997), and they were still being sold when another survey was taken in 1997 (Li and Wang 1999). The Kumming Zoo in the province has a "Tiger Shoot," an arcade game in which a player aims a model rifle at a target bearing the image of a Tiger. Speakers attached to the rifle amplify the sound of its firing, and a counter keeps score (Naiman 1997). This describes, in a nutshell, the attitudes that have pushed the Tiger to near-extinction in China and are providing the market that is killing hundreds of Tigers.
An investigation of Cambodian markets in 1994 and 1995 found Tiger products being sold in many cities. In one market alone, the bones and other body parts of an estimated 33 to 43 Tigers were found (Martin and Phipps 1996). Very large Tigers have been reported from Cambodia, with bones weighing almost double those of the average Tiger (Martin and Phipps 1996). Prices in Phnom Penh have risen in the 1990s from $80 per kilogram of bone to $250, and live Tigers are sold for $200 to $250 each; these Tigers are sent to Vietnam, where they can be sold for as much as $5,000 each prior to their slaughter (Martin and Phipps 1996). A 1995 workshop estimated populations in Vietnam at only 150 to 300, with another 300 in Cambodia (TRAFFIC 1995). The same year, Cambodia announced that two to three of its Tigers were being killed per month (Jackson et al. 1996). Tiger skins and body parts were offered for sale in November 1995 in Poi Pet, a town on the Cambodian-Thai border, with two large skins stretched out next to leopard pelts. This was only eight months after Cambodia had pledged at a World Wildlife Fund workshop to clamp down on the trade (Jackson et al. 1996). In January 1996, Tiger skins and products were still being openly sold in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, an indication that enforcement is not taken seriously in this country. The government of Cambodia granted logging concessions on 6.5 million hectares of forest land. This country still has sizeable forests, unlike Thailand, whose ancient teak forests were clearcut during the 1970s and 1980s. Burma is also opening its forests to logging, and once these forests are gone, the Tiger will have little habitat left in Indochina. In the process of constructing logging roads and opening the forests, hunters will enter and pursue the last Tigers in the region.
Throughout Indochina, wildlife is being decimated. According to biologists Alan Rabinowitz and George Schaller of the Wildlife Conservation Society, "People are literally wiping out everything--sambar, barking deer, even young elephants. The forests look good, but there are no Tigers because there is nothing for them to eat" (Matthiessen 1997). Alan Rabinowitz (1999) has spent years in the region and has documented the open sale of Tiger parts in towns and cities throughout the region. He found that Tigers remain mainly in isolated blocks of forest, and poaching is the most insidious threat to these populations; no effective Tiger management policies have yet been designed or implemented in Indochina (Rabinowitz 1999). Trade has increased since 1990 and occurs at local, regional and international levels, made more difficult to control by the political chaos in several countries and the fact that Laos is not yet a Party to CITES. Rabinowitz (1999) placed such importance on the effects of the trade that he concluded, "If the trade in tiger and other wildlife parts cannot be effectively controlled, the protection and management of tiger populations will become an almost insurmountable task in most range countries."
India's 23 Tiger Reserves lost 35 percent of their Tigers between 1989 and 1993, and at least 600 were killed between 1990 and 1994, according to the BBC film Tiger Crisis and Time reporter Eugene Linden (1994). Low fines and corruption among some wildlife enforcers and judges mean that such crimes, even when they result in arrests and indictments, are usually dismissed (Currey 1996). Despite the fact that hundreds of poachers and traders have been caught red-handed, they escaped conviction of Tiger-related offenses until very recently (Kumar and Wright 1999). Many cases of Tiger killing do not even result in arrests when corrupt park rangers accept bribes from poachers. Assam, a reserve with 90 Tigers lost almost half of them in just four months in 1994 (Linden 1994). The Indian government announced in October 1995 that it had seized 1,000 pounds of Tiger bone so far that year (Jackson et al. 1996). A scathing 1996 report by Dave Currey of the EIA, The Political Wilderness. India's Tiger Crisis (Currey 1996), revealed the depth of official indifference to the plight of the Tiger. It documented case after case of failures by the Indian government to preserve the Tiger and its habitat. The most notorious smuggler of Tiger skins and products, as well as other protected wildlife, Sansar Chand, has been arrested many times with smuggled animal skins that total almost 30,000, including Tiger skins, and 30 kilograms of Tiger bones. Each time he has avoided jail by various legal maneuverings and the refusal of the government of Uttar Pradesh in northern India to prosecute him (Currey 1996). The EIA undercover investigation in the State of Madhya Pradesh, where more than a quarter of India's Tigers are found, exposed the illegal offering for sale of the skins and bones of 39 freshly killed Tigers; they were informed that an additional 45 Tiger skins had been poached (Currey 1996). Leopard and Tiger skins were found in stores in all major towns and cities in Madhya Pradesh (Currey 1996).
India's 80 national parks and 441 sanctuaries have the highest designation of protection of all government lands, and they preserve 19 percent of the country's forests (Currey 1996). Yet EIA investigations have revealed an extraordinary deterioration in the quality of protection, with mining, tree-cutting, fishing and other illegal activities permitted in the parks, and underpaid and demoralized staffs. Kaziranga National Park, considered the jewel of the park system, has a highly dedicated staff, according to The Political Wilderness report by EIA (Currey 1996), but there are far too few rangers, and they receive very low pay ($68 per month), out of which they must pay for waterproof clothing and shoes, as well as food for their families. Often they have to go barefoot, and suffer from malaria (Currey 1996). The equipment and facilities are so inferior that the rangers are unable to properly protect the park's 70 Tigers, 1,100 Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus), Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) and Swamp Deer.
To combat this situation, Valmik Thapar and Bittu Sahgal, editor of the wildlife magazine Sanctuary ASIA; Belinda Wright, a prominent conservationist; and Tiger biologist Ullas Karanth founded the Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI) in 1994. Its major purpose was to protect Tigers from poachers and bring smugglers to justice (Matthiessen 1997). Ashok Kumar of TRAFFIC India joined the group in 1996, and this small organization has brought 82 people to court for wildlife violations; unfortunately, all have been set free because of the total failure of the Indian government to enforce its own laws (Matthiessen 1997). The organization has not given up, however, and they have recently seen signs of progress. They and other Tiger defenders believe that "The Tiger is the very soul of India" (Matthiessen 1997).
In Nepal, a $650,000 U.S. government grant coordinated by U.S.-based conservation organizations will promote eco-development near Royal Chitwan National Park (Jackson et al. 1996). This park was once an important Tiger sanctuary, but it lost 25 Tigers to poachers between 1988 and 1990 alone (Ward and Ward 1993). In the 1990s, poaching has continued, and in spite of intensified anti-poaching patrols, nine seizures of Tiger parts--most of them complete skeletons--took place in 1995 alone in villages adjoining two protected areas, and 23 poachers were arrested (Jackson et al. 1996). Those Tigers that survive in Nepal remain in Royal Chitwan and Royal Bardia National Parks, and Royal Sukhla Phanta and Parsa Wildlife Reserves, which border on northern India. Tiger populations in 1993 were estimated at about 250, but no recent surveys have been carried out for the country. A program of paying rewards for information leading to Tiger smugglers has led to many arrests in the vicinity of Royal Chitwan National Park (Jackson et al. 1996).
Siberian Tigers have been pursued by hunters in snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, on horseback and with dogs, but most are caught in steel jaw leghold traps or wire snares. Some hunters are equipped with automatic weapons and night-vision devices (Specter 1995). U.S. researchers were offered Tiger body parts for sale at airports in 1995. Those who are caught poaching or selling illegally taken animals receive minimal penalties--119 people were arrested in the first nine months of 1995 in Primorsky, and none received jail sentences; fines were minimal (Specter 1995). Rangers in the reserves have few vehicles and are not permitted to carry weapons to protect themselves; in 1994, the leader of the Tiger task force was hospitalized when a poacher ran him down with a truck (Specter 1995). In one area near Lake Khanka near China, all 10 resident Tigers were killed between 1992 and 1995 (Specter 1995). Chinese poachers have entered Russia to kill Tigers, and the Russian Mafia is marketing Tiger skins and bones in China in an underground organized crime network (Specter 1995).
Linden participated in a 1995 undercover operation organized by Steve Galster. Posing as American businessmen, Linden, Galster, Time photographer Anthony Suau, and Russian environmentalist Sergei Shaitarov were approached by a poacher offering the bones and skin of a year-old Tiger for $11,000 (Linden and Yar 1995). They met the poacher in Krasny Yar, homeland of the Udege people who have fought lumbering and Tiger poaching, and were told by the poacher that killing the Tiger was a bad thing for the Udege, but that it was okay for him to sell the skin because he had not killed the animal. "They all say that," Galster said later (Linden and Yar 1995). After photographing the poacher posing proudly with the Tiger skin, they told him that his price was too high, and informed a local biologist of the poacher's activities. They learned that this was not the poacher's first crime (Linden and Yar 1995). The Bikin Valley, where the Udege live, is besieged for Tiger goods by foreign buyers from Korea and China and some fly helicopters or small aircraft across the border to shoot Tigers and Brown Bears (Galster 1996).
Between 1992 and 1993, more than 100 Siberian Tigers were slaughtered (Galster et al. 1994), and in 1994, 20 to 30 (Linden 1995). Some suggest that far more--as many as 65 Tigers--were killed in 1994 (Specter 1995). In view of the enormous land area to be patrolled and the relatively small force of rangers, the actual number of Tigers killed may never be known. Numerous poachers were arrested in 1995, but local authorities failed to prosecute, as a result of government corruption.
To counter this devastating slaughter, anti-poaching brigades were organized by various conservation groups. The U.S.-based Global Survival Network has funded patrols that have been in the field since January 1994 (Galster and Eliot 1999). The Russian Ministry of Environment launched “Operation Amba” with the ceremonial burning of confiscated Tiger bones and skins in Turrisk. It is a specialized, well-equipped brigade that patrols rivers and reserves in Primorski Territory, where 85 percent of Tigers remain (Galster 1996). Some 25 to 30 employees, showing courage and competence, slowed the rate of poaching from 60 or more Tigers a year to 10 to 15 (Galster 1996). The Russian government issued a decree in August 1995 calling for a national strategy to protect Tigers and their habitat and to order all government agencies to cooperate on saving the Tiger. By 1997, $750,000 had been spent on anti-poaching patrols, and this special force has new uniforms, modern weapons and vehicles. Intensive work on the part of the joint U.S.-Russian team in early 1997 uncovered a major Tiger skin trading route and a sea route from Vladivostok to South Korea (Galster and Eliot 1999). Inspections of vehicles, hunters and potential poachers have turned the tide for the Siberian Tiger, aided by outside funding and public relations films, television shows and the help of non-governmental organizations (Galster and Eliot 1999).
In both China and Taiwan, facilities house captive Tigers for the express purpose of killing them for the Traditional Medicine trade. Caged Tigers on truck beds were paraded through the streets of Taipei, Taiwan, in 1986, with loud speakers blaring the date, time and location of the big cats' impending slaughter; their bodies were publicly auctioned (Highley and Highley 1994). Taiwan reportedly had more than 100 Tigers on farms in 1994, 60 more were kept in similar facilities in mainland China (Song and Lu 1994), and another 35 in Thailand. Humane organizations have inspected and filmed these facilities and found animals being kept in filthy conditions, and even starved to death.
China has attempted--unsuccessfully--to obtain permission from CITES members to sell body parts from these Tigers in international commerce.
Two representatives of the Chinese government, Wang Song and Houji Lu (1994), made such an appeal in an official magazine of the CITES Secretariat, CITES/C&M. They claimed that the Felids Breeding Centre in Heilongjiang Province had bred 73 Tigers, and now has financial difficulties which would be relieved if they could sell Tiger products from animals that "die from natural causes" (Song and Lu 1994). They both admit that the two subspecies kept there, the Siberian and South Chinese, have been interbred and suffer from various effects of inbreeding (Song and Lu 1994).
In Thailand, Tiger farms have received government approval but are provoking a bitter controversy. In late 1994 one Thai farm had 35 Tigers, and the owner bragged that a dead Tiger fetches up to $10,000 on the black market (AP 1994). He showed a display case with a male Tiger’s dried sex organs that sell for $4,500. Dr. Parntep Ratanakorn, an advisor to the Thai Royal Forestry Department which licenses Tiger farms, believes that Tigers could be farmed as easily as pigs. "The West is too sentimental about animals," he said. "Western people must open their minds and accept the ideas of Asian people because this is mainly an Asian issue" (AP 1994). Maitre Temsiripong, a former pig farmer, runs a farm with two pairs of Tigers that have produced 20 cubs in three years. The Royal Forestry Department's Khao Pardap Chang Captive Breeding Center has bred cubs from a female Tigress mated with her brother. The cubs show signs of inbreeding; they have skeletal abnormalities and cerebral defects, as documented by the U.K. Tiger Trust. A cub photographed by Tiger Trust at the Kaho Pardap Chang facility has a haunted and crazed expression known as "star-gazing," a classic symptom of inbreeding (Tiger Trust 1994).
Cubs in these farms are removed from the mother at birth so that she will immediately mate again, and cages have been constructed at the Thai government's Khao Pardap Chang facility to house many more of these pathetic animals (Tiger Trust 1994). In a change of position, the Thai government stopped granting permission to the farm to kill any of its Tigers beginning in January 1996. Valmik Thapar, at a 1996 Tiger conference, expressed vehement opposition to Tiger farms, urging that they be banned. He stated that such legitimization of the sale of Tiger parts, far from relieving pressure on wild Tigers as its proponents claim, will actually put a bounty onto the heads of the last remaining wild Tigers by legalizing trade. These farms present a major threat to remaining wild Tigers as well as extreme cruelty to these magnificent animals. International sanctions should force their closure. In the words of Tiger Trust (1994), if present plans are carried out in Thailand, cages will "soon be full of the mournful cries of wailing Tiger cubs awaiting their final and undignified journey to the slaughterhouse."
Maimed Tigers are used as tourist attractions in Thailand. Samutprakan Crocodile Farm outside Bangkok, Thailand, was visited by John Nichol (1987), author of The Animal Smugglers. Nichol described a captive Tiger at the farm: "He looked magnificent, lying in a sort of summerhouse”; a chain led from his collar to the wall. Nichol expressed concern that this restraint was inadequate, but he was told, "Tiger very tame," and they encouraged him to take a photo of the animal as it lay on a bed of straw (Nichol 1987). When he approached the Tiger, he saw why they called him "tame”; his feet were simply floppy stumps half hidden by the straw. He could not even stand. "I should have taken a photograph, but I felt too sick and felt I had to at least make a show of not encouraging the practice. Poor tiger . . ." (Nichol 1987). What had happened to this Tiger will never be known. Perhaps he was captured by both feet with wire snares or leghold traps, and wounds became septic, necessitating amputation. He may have had bones surgically removed for use in Traditional Medicine. Either way, his fate could not have been crueler.
China, a CITES member, legally banned exports of Tiger products in December 1992 (TRAFFIC 1995) but has turned a blind eye to this trade. South Korea obtained two-thirds of its imported Tiger bones from Indonesia (Jackson et al. 1996). The Republic of Korea finally prohibited the sale of Tiger products in 1994, and Singapore also banned sale. Japan has not prohibited internal trade in Tiger parts and derivatives (Jackson et al. 1996). Chinese Customs statistics show that more than 71,000 kilograms of Tiger bone medicines were exported between 1990 and 1992 to Japan, making it the largest importer in the world (TRAFFIC 1995). Investigators in 1994 and 1995 found wine and pills labeled as containing Tiger bone in Japanese stores (TRAFFIC 1995).
Chinatowns in North America and Europe have provided additional illegal markets for Tiger products. Some products labeled as Tiger bone in these stores were sent to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory for analysis and found to be other material. Some real Tiger bone is being imported, however. A Chinese businessman was caught smuggling a Tiger skeleton worth up to $50,000 into the United States in the early 1990s. In the United Kingdom, 28 Oriental pharmacies were visited in August 1994 by TRAFFIC investigators and, in cooperation with police and the Department of the Environment, they confiscated quantities of Tiger bone, rhino horn and bear bile from 14 stores. An investigation in Antwerp, Belgium, uncovered even more such items (TRAFFIC 1995). In 1992, China exported 250,000 pills and five containers of Traditional Medicine containing Tiger to Belgium; its world exports totaled 27 million items in the form of pills and other products from 1990 to 1992 (TRAFFIC 1995).
An upwelling of public concern in the United States and other countries about the impending extinction of the Tiger has inspired many efforts to preserve remaining wild populations. In the U.S. Congress, legislation enacted in September 1994, the Rhinoceros and Tiger Conservation Act, created a fund of appropriations of up to $10 million per year until the year 2000 to be used for conservation programs and projects to enhance enforcement of existing legislation throughout the Tiger's range. The bill also required the Department of the Interior to identify which countries engage in activities that abuse international accords protecting Tigers and rhinoceros. In 1998, the Conservation Act was amended by adding a prohibition on “the sale, importation, and exportation of products intended for human consumption or application containing, or labeled or advertised as containing, any substances derived from any species of rhinoceros or tiger.”
In October 1995, a meeting between conservationists, Traditional Medicine practitioners, and traders in Tiger products was organized by TRAFFIC East Asia. The participants came from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore and South Korea. Cooperation between these users and conservationists was the objective (Jackson et al. 1996). Its major goal was to convince practitioners to educate consumers to use substitutes for Tiger products.
There are about 1,000 Tigers in zoos, of which at least 360 are Siberian. Captive-bred animals have little chance of surviving if released to the wild, however, lacking survival knowledge which is passed on from generation to generation. Still, one day, they may be the only Tigers left in the world and will have to be used in reintroductions. Peter Matthiessen, in his 1997 article in Audubon magazine entitled “The Last Wild Tigers,” imagined a ". . . future in which the mysteries of wild tigers will be gone and the only tigers left on earth will be these listless specimens cooped up in zoos." The spine-tingling roars that once echoed for miles in tropical forests are fading, and epitaphs are already being written. A 1993 book by Geoffrey C. and Diane Raines Ward, Tiger-Wallahs, was subtitled, Encounters with the Men who Tried to Save the Greatest of the Great Cats.
The traditional lore upon which the trade in Tiger products is based can be traced to ancient veneration of this animal and the belief that it was capable of warding off evil; children in China wear caps with Tiger designs for luck and protection. Every 12 years, the Chinese celebrate the Year of Tiger, symbol of strength and good fortune, the source of which they are in the process of destroying.
The potential market of Asian consumers of Tiger products is approximately 2 billion people, and ancient traditions resist the reasonable approach of modern medicine and conservation concerns. In order to prevent the extinction of the last wild Tigers, much needs to be done in a very short time. Education must change traditional views to convince consumers to buy substitutes, anti-poaching patrols must be set up throughout their range, and enforcement of trade bans must be strong. Conservationists are working to achieve these goals with the hope that at least some wild Tigers will survive, but a lack of strong commitment on the part of the key governments involved, and the enormous market of uncaring or uneducated consumers, may doom their efforts.